In agri-value chains, chain traceability depends on how data are collected, validated, secured, and stored in the blockchain. With the- agriculture product flowing through different processes, data, and in-formation flow in parallel. Input parameters, namely seed, fertilizers, and pesticides, irrigation, machinery, farm management, pass through various processes to obtain the output, such as quality product, nutri-tion, greenhouse gas emission level, among others from the value chain . There are two types of blockchain, namely permissionless and permission . A blockchain platform can be public or private based on a blockchain consensus mechanism. The consensus mechanism can be the Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) for permissionless blockchain, while it can be the RAFT consensus for permission blockchain. Storing data either in the relational database (SQL/NoSQL) or graph database can help process query management and data access. APIs can be the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for permission blockchain. It is compatible with the graph database and can yield results with data properties to “defend data” stored in the blockchain. The consensus mechanism, fault tolerance nodes, immutability na-ture of blockchain-stored data allow the decentralized ecosystem to foster trust among the actors. At the time of dispute resolution between the actors, the system traces data at a particular point through time travel study. It helps restore transparency between the actors who are part of the peer-to-peer network and eliminates reliance on the third- party or intermediaries. Besides, smart function’s intelligent nature with various security layers added to data in blockchain eliminates the potential threat of cyberattacks. The fault tolerance algorithm ensures no single point of failure.
- Environmental data: Collecting real-time data from IoT devices such as water sensors, soil sensors, Global Positioning System enabled weather data that plays a vital role in the quality of the e-agriculture product that is to be grown.
- Production Data: Data emanating from different stakeholders from e farming system, including farmer, distributor, warehouse, logistics, retailer, and consumers, add traceability in the value chain by providing transparent movement of agriculture products between different stakeholders.
- Administrative data: Using land registry and farm population data, the government can directly link subsidy schemes or financial aids to the farmers’ accounts. It also covers crop insurance, fertilizer subsidy, and farm infrastructure support schemes.
- External agency/supply chain data: Any other external agency like e- commerce delivery platform, modern retail store and export houses can link to the value chain for additional capabilities and competitive advantage to farm produce.
- Seed quality tracing Quality seed is defined as varietal pure with high germination or viability percentage, which is devoid of disease and organisms, and proper moisture content and weight. Quality seed ensures good germination, rapid emergence, and vigorous growth. One such factor affecting seed quality can be the viability of seeds sown. As blockchain integrated IoT for e-agriculture helps to trace and track the seed supply chain, namely breeder and production units that supply quality seeds and examine whether a proper standard is maintained at every stage of seed production
- Fertilizers and pesticides supply chain tracing Fertilizers and pesticides are critical inputs that need to be tracked in their production and distribution. Fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate and pesticides, namely insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, are explosive. If proper transparency and tracing are not performed, these may go to unscrupulous actors for wrongdoings. Therefore, end-to-end traceability is vital for the fertilizers and pesticides value chain. To grow a quality product, it is essential to use the right dosage of fertilizers and pesticides. If the farmers plan to produce organic products, they need to follow specific criteria and use organic fertilizers and pesticides. Blockchain keeps the record of what types, ingredients, and dosage of fertilizers and pesticides are used in the crops.